Will Trump Revive the War on Drugs?

The answer is far from clear. But the battle lines are already being drawn in Congress and in statehouses across the country.

Is the drug war back on the nation’s agenda?

That depends on whom you ask.  But uncertainty over the answer begins with President Donald Trump himself.

Nearly two decades ago, in a Miami speech to 700 Florida business executives, he offered policy prescriptions that would have pleased most drug reformers.

“You have to legalize drugs,” Trump told the executives, at a time when the cocaine crisis was ravaging south Florida. Speaking at an awards ceremony hosted by the Miami Herald, he declared, “You have to take the profit away from these drug czars.”

Today, such views are becoming mainstream—shared by advocates on both the left and right. But if the administration’s budget released this week is any guide, those views now have little traction in Washington. Instead, Trump’s new “law-and-order” justice team seems bent on pursuing the zero-tolerance enforcement policies that he described in his Miami speech as a “joke.”

The President’s 2018 budget package supports a federal drug control budget of $27.8 billion—with the bulk (56 percent) going to supply reduction strategies such as increased interdiction and enforcement. That’s in contrast to the Obama administration’s “Drug Policy for the 21st Century,” which emphasized demand reduction programs such as treatment and prevention over law enforcement efforts.

While some drug reformers maintained Obama was still being over-cautious in backing away from zero-tolerance drug enforcement policies, his administration was the first in history to propose more funding for drug treatment and prevention than for enforcement and interdiction.

Trump’s budget also exposes some sharp differences between the new administration and legislators on both sides of the aisle who have been supporting efforts to reduce the fiscal and human costs of mass incarceration (joined by state and local officials)—efforts that include changing, if not reversing, the now four-decade old combative approach to drug enforcement.

Uphill Battle

How that conflict plays out remains to be seen. But the President’s budget suggests reformers who want to prevent the country from sliding back into the punishment-oriented and law-enforcement-dominated strategies that characterized the so-called War on Drugs” have an uphill battle ahead of them.

One clear indication of which way the wind is blowing: the Trump budget calls for $84 million in new funding for the federal prison system in anticipation of a swell of inmates caught up in the administration’s new enforcement initiatives.

Attorney General Jeff Sessions. Photo by Gage Skidmore via Flickr

Earlier this month, Attorney General Jeff Sessions issued new charging policy guidelines that instruct federal prosecutors to disregard one of the game-changing moves taken by the Obama administration on drug prosecutions. A 2013 memo issued by then-Attorney General Eric Holder recommended that prosecutors avoid  seeking mandatory minimums and sentencing enhancements for nonviolent drug defendants with no ties to criminal trafficking organizations or extensive criminal histories.

Noting that these efforts resulted in “unduly harsh sentences and perceived or actual disparities that do not reflect our Principles of Federal Prosecution,” the memo added that “long sentences for low-level, nonviolent drug offenses do not promote public safety, deterrence and rehabilitation.”

Such sentences are a major reason why the U.S. has led the world in per capita incarceration rates. Although it’s unclear what impact the Holder memo has had on drug prosecutions, the release of thousands of federal prisoners jailed for nonviolent drug offenses contributed to an overall drop in the nation’s prison population in 2015 to its lowest level since 2002—a decline that was further fueled by the decision of many states to re-think their own “tough on crime” sentencing strategies.

Sessions believes, however, that such “soft” sentencing is responsible for recent crime spikes in many cities, and the increase in the proposed funding for the federal prison system seems to many critics an implicit acknowledgment that the new policies will reverse the prison-population decline.

“Donald Trump is pushing an outdated approach to criminal justice that virtually everyone now recognizes is a staggering waste of money,” Sen. Daylin Leach, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, told The Crime Report. 

The effort to reform drug enforcement strategy  has strong support from leading Republicans and even conservative stalwarts like the Koch brothers. That raises questions about whether the Administration’s tightening of drug policies will actually succeed.

“Trump can tinker with federal criminal justice policy, but he won’t be able to reverse the cultural shift that has occurred across the nation,” predicted Leach.

Will the hardline rhetoric make a difference at the state level?  Responses so far have been varied.

States Rethink Drug Policy

The Florida Senate rejected a bill this month that would have created new mandatory minimums for trafficking the synthetic opioid fentanyl. In Pennsylvania, however—where prison reform measures led to the largest drop in the state inmate population in four decades—Republican lawmakers have been advancing a measure to re-introduce mandatory minimum sentences for some drug crimes.

One key driver of drug policy reform has been the spreading opioid epidemic.  And in this area, the lines between hardliners and reformers seem blurred.  During the campaign, Trump put it high on his agenda, giving special weight to addressing the issue as a public health problem rather than a law enforcement problem—and that appeared to resonate with voters. Many of the epidemic’s victims are in states that voted Republican last November.

The new budget proposes $10.8 billion to support recent legislation aimed at expanding treatment for substance abuse, such as the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act (CARA)—which was passed by Congress last year to improve state programs in drug treatment and overdose prevention.

That’s a slight increase over 2017 continuing resolution levels; nevertheless it represents a  drop from the $13.2 billion earmarked for treatment efforts in 2016. The new budget earmarks $128 million for CARA-related programs—$25 million less than 2017—with most of those cuts coming from a reduction in Targeted Enhancement Grants to expand the availability of medication-assisted treatment, an evidence-based approach that uses suboxone and methadone to help reduce drug dependency.

The mixed signals—a renewed emphasis on treatment combined with cuts—make it hard to draw conclusions about White House policy.

Adding fuel to the skeptics’ concerns, Health and Human Services Secretary Tom Price, sparked an outcry from the medical community during a multi-state opioid “listening tour” when he stigmatized people on opioid replacement drugs like methadone and buprenorphine.

HHS Secretary Tom Price. Photo by Gage Skidmore via Flickr

“If we’re just substituting one opioid for another, we’re not moving the dial much,” Price said of MAT, according to the Charleston Gazette-Mail. “Folks need to be cured so they can be productive members of society and realize their dreams.”

The President’s decision to tap Dr. Elinore McCance-Katz, a respected addiction expert and a strong proponent of medication assisted treatment, to head the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has eased some anxieties. But critics worry that any progress on treatment will be undercut by massive cuts to social services programs and health care.

The President has also proposed $150 million in new funding toward law enforcement strategies specifically to address the opioid crisis. This includes an extra $30 million for the Drug Enforcement Administration that will be used to expand the agency’s Tactical Diversion Squads —which investigate doctors and pharmacies suspected of being “pill mills”—and to hire more U.S. attorneys to pursue federal drug cases against them.

According to budget documents the money will also be used to help the DEA implement forthcoming recommendations by Attorney General Jeff Sessions’ recently created Task Force on Crime Reduction and Public Safety. Officials say the task force will work closely with Trump’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and the Opioid Crisis— led by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie—to develop the details.

Sessions named Steve Cook, former head of the National Association of Assistant US Attorneys — a conservative group of U.S. Attorneys strongly opposed to criminal justice reform — to lead his crime reduction task force.

Adding doubt to the importance placed by the new administration on the treatment approach, a new report from the Congressional Budget Office this week projected that Trump’s signature health care bill, which passed the House on May 4, would leave 23 million people without health insurance (including support for substance-abuse programs and counseling) over the next decade.

“What’s often overlooked… is that economic safety net programs and overall health care services are also critical [in treating addiction],” said Leo Beletsky, an expert in public health and law at Northeastern University. “If Trump succeeds in slashing resources to those programs, the opioid crisis will spiral into something a lot more deadly.”

The Drug War Abroad

In other areas, Trump has evoked the specter of an expanding drug war by connecting his proposals to build a ‘Great Wall’ on the southern border with Mexico with effort to stem addiction. Among other things he proposes hiring 1,500 new federal border and immigration agents to block international drug trafficking—one of the centerpieces of previous Washington policy—and i asking Congress to funnel more than $2.6 billion to border enforcement.

Critics like Beletsky argue such strategies have not been successful in the past—and are not likely to be successful in the future.

“Given the dynamics of the illicit drug supply chains, I can predict with 100 percent confidence that [border enforcement] will do nothing to stem the flow of illegal drugs to the US,” Beletsky said. “In fact, ramping up interdiction efforts at the US-Mexico border may exacerbate the problem by making fentanyl and other cheap synthetic drugs that much more attractive to dealers.”

The shifts in criminal justice policy—including drug policy—have already elicited a vocal backlash from current and former public officials in both political parties, including Republican Sen. Mike Lee of Utah, and former Attorney General Holder—who issued a statement calling the effort “dumb on crime.”

Last week, 15 Democratic state Attorneys General joined in, with a letter admonishing the new administration’s tough on crime stance.

“Pursuing the toughest criminal penalties against defendants is an outdated approach that has not lowered recidivism rates or reduced crime,” said Lisa Madigan, the Attorney General of Illinois.

“We need the Justice Department to be at the forefront of implementing proven policies to reform our criminal justice system in ways that lower prison populations and make our communities safer.”

Bipartisan Pushback

The criticism isn’t limited to Democrats. Brett Tolman, the U.S. Attorney for Utah during the Bush administration, says the administration’s rhetoric signals a failure to recognize that state and local policy changes have already saved taxpayer dollars on unnecessary incarceration, with little or no impact on crime rates.

“I think there is a shift in the mindframe, which is unfortunate because even many conservative states have recognized that this is not the solution,” he told The Crime Report.

But the other side in the battle over the future of drug policy is equally vocal.  Many prosecutors—particularly those in sparsely populated, cash-strapped counties—view mandatory minimum sentences as a crime-fighting tool.

Lisa Lazzari-Strasiser, the District Attorney of Somerset County, Pennsylvania, says mandatory minimums are “desperately needed.”  Without them, she said in testimony in Harrisburg this week, DA’s have no “leverage” to pursue bigger game like drug kingpins.

“We have nothing to get them to sit down at a table and tell them how much time they’re going to spend in jail if they don’t move up the food chain,” she explained. “It gives smaller communities (the ability) to attack and at least fight this battle on an even playing field.”

Who will win the debate? The jury is out.

Alex Whiting, faculty co-director of the Criminal Justice Policy Program at Harvard Law School, questions how much impact Sessions hardline strategy will have at the grassroots level, given the momentum of reform. “How far this gets implemented and with what kind of energy I think is really an open question,” he said in a recent article in The Hill.

One unknown is whether even the expected increase in federal drug prosecutions will significantly reverse the policy changes that are already underway in jurisdictions around the country.

“[The feds] could increase their volume somewhat but they don’t have the resources to take enough cases to make a big difference,” said a veteran prosecutor in Pennsylvania, who asked to comment off the record, citing office policy.

Under the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution, the federal government technically takes precedence over state and local jurisdictions in prosecuting a number of drug and firearms offenses. However, it frequently relies heavily on local law enforcement to help build a case.

Asked what would happen if local cops and DAs simply avoided cooperating with their federal counterparts, the prosecutor conceded that such an outcome could create an unprecedented challenge for the Trump administration.

“If the case originates in the state system it would be hard for [the Feds] to just start snatching those cases,” he told The Crime Report. “They have never done that in the past.”

For the time being, Sessions’ best bet may be to stack the deck in his favor. Shortly after his confirmation he fired more than 40 U.S. Attorneys. As of last month, the Department of Justice had yet to hire a single replacement; but finding individuals who share Sessions’ drug war fervor is almost surely a top priority.

And the ultimate question is whether voters’ apparent support for Trump’s “law and order” rhetoric during the campaign will extend to policies that effectively criminalize friends and family for nonviolent drug offenses, or treat victims of the opioid crisis as a law enforcement problem rather than a health issue.

Voters (most recently in Philadelphia) have been rejecting tough-on-crime prosecutors in favor of DAs who favor more evidence-based approaches.

Nevertheless, some law enforcement officials who have spent years in the drug war’s trenches argue that still leaves room for a more focused approach—if the administration is able to resolve its mixed signals.

“There is no appetite from where I am sitting for going back to retail drug prosecutions.” said Jerry Daley, Executive Director of the Philadelphia-Camden High Intensity Drug Traffic Area (HIDTA) program.  “Nobody is really looking to prosecute those cases aggressively. But when it comes to drug traffickers, well that’s a different story.”

That opens the possibility of a re-calibrated anti-drug strategy that mixes a public health approach with aggressive pursuit of kingpins and drug cartels.

Christopher Moraff

There’s no sign of that yet, but as the Trump White House has already demonstrated, policymaking is anything but predictable.

One example: last week Washington was in a tizzy over rumors that the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)—long a centerpiece of the nation’s combative drug war strategy but which has been shifting towards a public health approach under recent drug “czars”—would be gutted in the budget proposals.

When the budget details were finally made public, the ONDCP was untouched.

Christopher Moraff is a frequent contributor to The Crime Report. Readers’ comments are welcome.

from https://thecrimereport.org

Texas Pols Ready to Act on ‘Show-Me-Your-Papers’ Bill

The anti-sanctuary legislation would require local police to detain people for immigration agents and would permit them to investigate a person’s immigration status upon arrest.

President Trump’s plan for a deportation force is meeting resistance in the courts, but Texas is about to pass a bill that will make all of the state’s law enforcement part of it—whether they like it or not, says the Daily Beast. Seven years after Arizona enacted a similar law, Texas is on the verge of passing a bill that would give every police officer in the state the power to say “show me your papers.” The bill, SB4, demands that local police hold people for immigration agents and permits them to investigate a person’s immigration status upon arrest.

In March, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott said he was willing to throw law enforcement leaders in prison if they didn’t spend their resources on immigration enforcement. Talking specifically about Travis County Sheriff Sally Hernandez, Abbott said Texas would pass legislation “that will impose criminal penalties where the sheriff herself can wind up behind bars, and hence be removed from office, fines that could add up to millions of dollars per year, as well as other penalties. We’re gonna make it so costly, so expensive, there’s no way that any city or county can take on sanctuary city policies.” Why do cities opt to become immigrant sanctuaries? Because for many years, ICE would essentially ask local police to do them an unconstitutional favor: hold a person up to 48 hours without probable cause until ICE agents were able to pick them up. Multiple federal courts have determined that this had violated people’s Fourth Amendment rights.

from https://thecrimereport.org

Black Lives Matter Turns Away from Protests and Toward Policy

The election of Donald Trump has prompted the group to shift priorities. “People are channeling their energy into organizing locally, recognizing that in Trump’s America, our communities are under direct attack,” said one leader.

The Black Lives Movement is evolving away from street protests in the Trump era, reports the Washington Post.  News about controversial police encounters with black Americans has been met with relatively subdued responses in recent weeks. Activists say the movement’s efforts have entered a new phase — one more focused on policy than protest — prompted by the election of President Trump. “What people are seeing is that there are less demonstrations,” said Alicia Garza, who helped coin the #BlackLivesMatter hashtag in 2012. “A lot of that is that people are channeling their energy into organizing locally, recognizing that in Trump’s America, our communities are under direct attack.”

The issue that galvanized the movement hasn’t subsided. So far in 2017, police have shot and killed 23 unarmed people, a higher rate than in 2016, when 48 unarmed people were killed all year. But like most of the political left, Black Lives Matter leaders were stunned by Trump’s electoral victory in November. They’ve grappled with the role of an anti-racism movement at a time when political threats to other groups — immigrants, Muslims and women — have gained urgency and pushed more progressives into the streets in protest. In interviews, more than half a dozen leaders in the Black Lives Matter movement said the election prompted renewed focus on supporting other minority groups as well as amassing electoral power to fight the new administration.

from https://thecrimereport.org

States Mull Tougher Laws to Suppress Surging Hate, Bigotry

At least six states are considering new laws to tamp down the wave of hate that has washed over the country since the caustic presidential election. One expert says some Americans “are reverting back to a kind of tribalism and acting out with hate crimes or acts of uncivilized bigotry.”

A patchwork of state and federal laws, along with underreporting, means it is unclear how often hate crimes occur — a portrait advocates say is needed to help shape public policy and heighten awareness. The F.B.I.’s latest report, released in November, showed a 6.7 percent rise in reported hate crimes in 2015. But reporting is optional for police agencies, and nearly nine out of 10 reported that no hate crimes happened in their jurisdiction in 2015. Anecdotal evidence suggests hates crimes are climbing again this year. “What you are seeing is this widespread feeling of fear and disenfranchisement,” said Brian Levin, a California criminal justice professor who studies hate. “Social, political and demographic changes are becoming so rapid and unpredictable that people are reverting back to a kind of tribalism and acting out with hate crimes or acts of uncivilized bigotry.”

from https://thecrimereport.org

‘I Love the NRA’: How Trump Courted Gun Group’s Support

How did a penthouse-dwelling real estate mogul who once supported gun control become the favored presidential candidate of the NRA? The Trace says it began in 2015, when a political operative secured an eight-minute speaking slot at the group’s annual meeting in Nashville. “I love the NRA,” Trump declared.

Donald Trump will speak at the NRA’s Annual Meeting today in Atlanta — the first sitting president to do so since Ronald Reagan in 1983. The Trace recounts the 14 steps it took to accomplish a gun-rights makeover for the penthouse-dwelling real estate mogul who once supported a ban on assault weapons and waiting periods for firearms purchases. To get to the White House, Trump had to convince the NRA that he was their kind of candidate. As he prepared to launch a presidential campaign in early 2015, Trump took a key first step by hiring Chuck Laudner, an Iowa-based political operative who secured for him an invitation to speak at the NRA annual gathering in Nashville that February.

Laudner’s bit of matchmaking marked the beginning of a political marriage of convenience between Trump and the NRA. From the gun group, the novice candidate gained well-funded advertising support, an organized get-out-the-vote operation, and a well-tuned anti-establishment messaging machine to vouch for his newfound populism. From Trump, the NRA got a nominee who echoed the group’s dire rhetoric and attacks on the media — and now a president whose embrace has made the gun group perhaps the most influential organization on the ascendant right.

from https://thecrimereport.org

As Trump Embraces the NRA, Sales of Firearms Take a Dive

Sales spiked to all-time highs last year under the irrational trope that President Obama was going to “take away our guns.” But gun manufacturers and retailers are seeing a downside as President Trump snuggles with the NRA: Gun sales have dropped sharply since he was elected.

Donald Trump might seem to be the NRA’s perfect president. He has signed an executive order to unwind Obama-era gun restrictions, put NRA president Wayne LaPierre at his side during a White House meeting of conservatives, and is spending his 99th day in office speaking to the NRA convention today in Atlanta. His “Second Amendment Advisory Commission” is chaired by the NRA’s top lobbyist. But the Trump era hasn’t been all good news for the NRA and the gun industry, says the Daily Beast. For one thing, gun sales have tanked since November’s election, after reaching all-time highs under President Obama.

The number of instant FBI background checks dropped by about 1 million applications in the first two months after Trump was elected, compared to the same time a year before, and were down again in February and March. Experts said that fear of gun restrictions under Obama prompted the sky-high sales. A Trump presidency, with a Republican controlled House and Senate and 31 Republican governors, is also testing the lengths the NRA can go to without running into a backlash from voters, especially in the highly educated suburban districts where Trump struggled in 2016.

from https://thecrimereport.org

How Much to Deport Migrants? It’s Complicated–and Costly

ICE spent an average of $10,854 per deportee during the fiscal year that ended in September. Trump has promised to deport all of the estimated 2 million unauthorized migrants with criminal histories now living in the U.S. He’s going to need a much bigger budget.

The Arizona Republic explores the economics of deportation: How much would it cost for President Trump to live up to his campaign promise to deport all 11 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S., or, more recently, the 2 million with criminal histories? In his revised budget appropriations for fiscal year 2017, Trump asked Congress for an additional $1.15 billion to detain, transport and remove undocumented immigrants from the U.S. He also asked for $76 million to begin recruiting and hiring some 10,000 ICE agents. So how would that get Trump toward deporting 2 million immigrants? Based on current estimates, the additional funds could get him about 5 percent of the way to his goal.

There’s nothing hard and fast about such estimates. The location, length of detention, country of origin and other factors can significantly add or subtract from the price tag. “This (effort to increase deportations) is a major, major task … and would require a large investment in immigration enforcement,” said Ben Gigis, director of Labor Market Policy at the American Action Forum, a center-right think tank. ICE spent an average of $10,854 per deportee during the fiscal year that ended in September, according to ICE spokeswoman Yasmeen Pitts O’Keefe. “This includes all costs necessary to identify, apprehend, detain, process through immigration court, and remove an alien,” she said in an interview.

from https://thecrimereport.org

NY to Aid Long Island Suburbs Beset by MS-13 ‘Scourge’

Brentwood, Long Island, has become a hub of violence associated with MS-13, a gang with roots in Central America. Attorney General Jeff Sessions is scheduled to travel there on Friday. Gov. Andrew Cuomo beat him to Brentwood by two days to announce an increase in state police undercover and uniformed operations in that area.

Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo traveled to Brentwood, Long Island, Wednesday to announce the creation of an anti-gang policing initiative to combat MS-13, the brutal transnational gang that he called “a current scourge” on the area, reports the New York Times. Most recently, the gang has been implicated in the murders this month of four young men whose bodies were discovered on the edge of a town park in the neighboring Suffolk County town of Central Islip. As part of the statewide initiative, the state police will increase undercover and uniformed operations in the area, adding 25 officers to the efforts of local police and an FBI task force to battle the gang, which has its roots in Central America.

MS-13 was blamed for 11 murders last year in Suffolk County, including those of two teenage girls who were brutally pummeled with machetes and baseball bats near a Brentwood elementary school in September. The violence has attracted national attention. Attorney General Jeff Sessions is scheduled to visit the area on Friday to discuss gang violence. President Trump has said the threat raised by gangs justifies his administration’s tough proposals on immigration, and he cited MS-13 as a reason for building a wall at the Mexican border. Cuomo distanced his actions from those of the Trump administration. “We’ve been talking about this for the past couple weeks,” he said. “I can’t speak to what the attorney general is doing.”

from https://thecrimereport.org

Immigrant Arrests Soar 33%; Many Have No Crime Record

Newly empowered federal agents have intensified their pursuit of undocumented immigrants under Trump. A Seattle prosecutor says immigrants have quickly come to fear the U.S. justice system. He says, “The federal government, in really just a couple of months, has undone decades of work that we have done to build this trust.”

Immigration arrests rose 32.6 percent in the first  2 1/2 months of the Trump administration, reports the Washington Post. Newly empowered federal agents are intensifying their pursuit of not just undocumented immigrants with criminal records, but also thousands of illegal immigrants who have been otherwise law-abiding. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement arrested 21,362 immigrants, mostly convicted criminals, from January through mid-March, compared to 16,104 during the same period last year. Arrests of immigrants with no criminal records more than doubled to 5,441, evidence that President Trump has ditched his predecessor’s protective stance toward most of the 11 million undocumented immigrants in the U.S.

Advocates for immigrants say the unbridled enforcement has led to a sharp drop in reports from Latinos of sexual assaults and other crimes in Houston and Los Angeles, and terrified immigrant communities across the United States. A prosecutor said the presence of immigration agents in state and local courthouses, which advocates say has increased under the Trump administration, makes it harder to prosecute crime. “My sense is that ICE is emboldened in a way that I have never seen,” said Dan Satterberg, the top prosecutor in Seattle. “The federal government, in really just a couple of months, has undone decades of work that we have done to build this trust.”

from https://thecrimereport.org

Trump Deputies Ready Plan for Massive Deportation Effort

Documents suggest the White House is quickly and quietly moving forward with plans to assemble the nationwide deportation force that President Trump promised on the campaign trail.

The Trump administration is quickly identifying ways to assemble the nationwide deportation force that President Trump promised on the campaign trail as he railed against the dangers posed by illegal immigration, reports the Washington Post. An internal Department of Homeland Security assessment shows the agency has already found 33,000 more detention beds to house undocumented immigrants, opened discussions with dozens of local police forces that could be empowered with enforcement authority and identified where construction of Trump’s border wall could begin. The agency also is considering ways to speed up the hiring of hundreds of new Customs and Border Patrol officers, including ending polygraph and physical fitness tests in some cases, according to the documents.

Meanwhile, the New York Times reports that the Trump administration is seeking to change long-established federal requirements on jails holding immigrants facing deportation. They include requirements to notify immigration officials if a detainee spends two weeks or longer in solitary confinement; to check on suicidal inmates every 15 minutes and evaluate their mental health every day; to inform detainees, in languages they can understand, how to obtain medical care, and to provide a staff member who can advocate in English on the detainee’s behalf.

from https://thecrimereport.org