Propaganda and the Weakening of Trust in Government

On November 4, 2016, the hacker "Guccifer 2.0,: a front for Russia’s military intelligence service, claimed in a blogpost that the Democrats were likely to use vulnerabilities to hack the presidential elections. On November 9, 2018, President Donald Trump started tweeting about the senatorial elections in Florida and Arizona. Without any evidence whatsoever, he said that Democrats were trying to…

On November 4, 2016, the hacker "Guccifer 2.0,: a front for Russia's military intelligence service, claimed in a blogpost that the Democrats were likely to use vulnerabilities to hack the presidential elections. On November 9, 2018, President Donald Trump started tweeting about the senatorial elections in Florida and Arizona. Without any evidence whatsoever, he said that Democrats were trying to steal the election through "FRAUD."

Cybersecurity experts would say that posts like Guccifer 2.0's are intended to undermine public confidence in voting: a cyber-attack against the US democratic system. Yet Donald Trump's actions are doing far more damage to democracy. So far, his tweets on the topic have been retweeted over 270,000 times, eroding confidence far more effectively than any foreign influence campaign.

We need new ideas to explain how public statements on the Internet can weaken American democracy. Cybersecurity today is not only about computer systems. It's also about the ways attackers can use computer systems to manipulate and undermine public expectations about democracy. Not only do we need to rethink attacks against democracy; we also need to rethink the attackers as well.

This is one key reason why we wrote a new research paper which uses ideas from computer security to understand the relationship between democracy and information. These ideas help us understand attacks which destabilize confidence in democratic institutions or debate.

Our research implies that insider attacks from within American politics can be more pernicious than attacks from other countries. They are more sophisticated, employ tools that are harder to defend against, and lead to harsh political tradeoffs. The US can threaten charges or impose sanctions when Russian trolling agencies attack its democratic system. But what punishments can it use when the attacker is the US president?

People who think about cybersecurity build on ideas about confrontations between states during the Cold War. Intellectuals such as Thomas Schelling developed deterrence theory, which explained how the US and USSR could maneuver to limit each other's options without ever actually going to war. Deterrence theory, and related concepts about the relative ease of attack and defense, seemed to explain the tradeoffs that the US and rival states faced, as they started to use cyber techniques to probe and compromise each others' information networks.

However, these ideas fail to acknowledge one key differences between the Cold War and today. Nearly all states -- whether democratic or authoritarian -- are entangled on the Internet. This creates both new tensions and new opportunities. The US assumed that the internet would help spread American liberal values, and that this was a good and uncontroversial thing. Illiberal states like Russia and China feared that Internet freedom was a direct threat to their own systems of rule. Opponents of the regime might use social media and online communication to coordinate among themselves, and appeal to the broader public, perhaps toppling their governments, as happened in Tunisia during the Arab Spring.

This led illiberal states to develop new domestic defenses against open information flows. As scholars like Molly Roberts have shown, states like China and Russia discovered how they could "flood" internet discussion with online nonsense and distraction, making it impossible for their opponents to talk to each other, or even to distinguish between truth and falsehood. These flooding techniques stabilized authoritarian regimes, because they demoralized and confused the regime's opponents. Libertarians often argue that the best antidote to bad speech is more speech. What Vladimir Putin discovered was that the best antidote to more speech was bad speech.

Russia saw the Arab Spring and efforts to encourage democracy in its neighborhood as direct threats, and began experimenting with counter-offensive techniques. When a Russia-friendly government in Ukraine collapsed due to popular protests, Russia tried to destabilize new, democratic elections by hacking the system through which the election results would be announced. The clear intention was to discredit the election results by announcing fake voting numbers that would throw public discussion into disarray.

This attack on public confidence in election results was thwarted at the last moment. Even so, it provided the model for a new kind of attack. Hackers don't have to secretly alter people's votes to affect elections. All they need to do is to damage public confidence that the votes were counted fairly. As researchers have argued, "simply put, the attacker might not care who wins; the losing side believing that the election was stolen from them may be equally, if not more, valuable."

These two kinds of attacks -- "flooding" attacks aimed at destabilizing public discourse, and "confidence" attacks aimed at undermining public belief in elections -- were weaponized against the US in 2016. Russian social media trolls, hired by the "Internet Research Agency," flooded online political discussions with rumors and counter-rumors in order to create confusion and political division. Peter Pomerantsev describes how in Russia, "one moment [Putin's media wizard] Surkov would fund civic forums and human rights NGOs, the next he would quietly support nationalist movements that accuse the NGOs of being tools of the West." Similarly, Russian trolls tried to get Black Lives Matter protesters and anti-Black Lives Matter protesters to march at the same time and place, to create conflict and the appearance of chaos. Guccifer 2.0's blog post was surely intended to undermine confidence in the vote, preparing the ground for a wider destabilization campaign after Hillary Clinton won the election. Neither Putin nor anyone else anticipated that Trump would win, ushering in chaos on a vastly greater scale.

We do not know how successful these attacks were. A new book by John Sides, Michael Tesler and Lynn Vavreck suggests that Russian efforts had no measurable long-term consequences. Detailed research on the flow of news articles through social media by Yochai Benker, Robert Farris, and Hal Roberts agrees, showing that Fox News was far more influential in the spread of false news stories than any Russian effort.

However, global adversaries like the Russians aren't the only actors who can use flooding and confidence attacks. US actors can use just the same techniques. Indeed, they can arguably use them better, since they have a better understanding of US politics, more resources, and are far more difficult for the government to counter without raising First Amendment issues.

For example, when the Federal Communication Commission asked for comments on its proposal to get rid of "net neutrality," it was flooded by fake comments supporting the proposal. Nearly every real person who commented was in favor of net neutrality, but their arguments were drowned out by a flood of spurious comments purportedly made by identities stolen from porn sites, by people whose names and email addresses had been harvested without their permission, and, in some cases, from dead people. This was done not just to generate fake support for the FCC's controversial proposal. It was to devalue public comments in general, making the general public's support for net neutrality politically irrelevant. FCC decision making on issues like net neutrality used to be dominated by industry insiders, and many would like to go back to the old regime.

Trump's efforts to undermine confidence in the Florida and Arizona votes work on a much larger scale. There are clear short-term benefits to asserting fraud where no fraud exists. This may sway judges or other public officials to make concessions to the Republicans to preserve their legitimacy. Yet they also destabilize American democracy in the long term. If Republicans are convinced that Democrats win by cheating, they will feel that their own manipulation of the system (by purging voter rolls, making voting more difficult and so on) are legitimate, and very probably cheat even more flagrantly in the future. This will trash collective institutions and leave everyone worse off.

It is notable that some Arizonan Republicans -- including Martha McSally -- have so far stayed firm against pressure from the White House and the Republican National Committee to claim that cheating is happening. They presumably see more long term value from preserving existing institutions than undermining them. Very plausibly, Donald Trump has exactly the opposite incentives. By weakening public confidence in the vote today, he makes it easier to claim fraud and perhaps plunge American politics into chaos if he is defeated in 2020.

If experts who see Russian flooding and confidence measures as cyberattacks on US democracy are right, then these attacks are just as dangerous -- and perhaps more dangerous -- when they are used by domestic actors. The risk is that over time they will destabilize American democracy so that it comes closer to Russia's managed democracy -- where nothing is real any more, and ordinary people feel a mixture of paranoia, helplessness and disgust when they think about politics. Paradoxically, Russian interference is far too ineffectual to get us there -- but domestically mounted attacks by all-American political actors might.

To protect against that possibility, we need to start thinking more systematically about the relationship between democracy and information. Our paper provides one way to do this, highlighting the vulnerabilities of democracy against certain kinds of information attack. More generally, we need to build levees against flooding while shoring up public confidence in voting and other public information systems that are necessary to democracy.

The first may require radical changes in how we regulate social media companies. Modernization of government commenting platforms to make them robust against flooding is only a very minimal first step. Up until very recently, companies like Twitter have won market advantage from bot infestations -- even when it couldn't make a profit, it seemed that user numbers were growing. CEOs like Mark Zuckerberg have begun to worry about democracy, but their worries will likely only go so far. It is difficult to get a man to understand something when his business model depends on not understanding it. Sharp -- and legally enforceable -- limits on automated accounts are a first step. Radical redesign of networks and of trending indicators so that flooding attacks are less effective may be a second.

The second requires general standards for voting at the federal level, and a constitutional guarantee of the right to vote. Technical experts nearly universally favor robust voting systems that would combine paper records with random post-election auditing, to prevent fraud and secure public confidence in voting. Other steps to ensure proper ballot design, and standardize vote counting and reporting will take more time and discussion -- yet the record of other countries show that they are not impossible.

The US is nearly unique among major democracies in the persistent flaws of its election machinery. Yet voting is not the only important form of democratic information. Apparent efforts to deliberately skew the US census against counting undocumented immigrants show the need for a more general audit of the political information systems that we need if democracy is to function properly.

It's easier to respond to Russian hackers through sanctions, counter-attacks and the like than to domestic political attacks that undermine US democracy. To preserve the basic political freedoms of democracy requires recognizing that these freedoms are sometimes going to be abused by politicians such as Donald Trump. The best that we can do is to minimize the possibilities of abuse up to the point where they encroach on basic freedoms and harden the general institutions that secure democratic information against attacks intended to undermine them.

This essay was co-authored with Henry Farrell, and previously appeared on Motherboard, with a terrible headline that I was unable to get changed.

from https://www.schneier.com/blog/

Hitler’s Hollywood, A Look at the Documentary Film

Hitler’s Hollywood, is a a documentary film about how Joseph Goebbels reinvented Hollywood film making for the Third Reich.


After completely cleansing Jews out of filmmaking, Goebbels used the relatively new media of talkie films to legitimize anti-Semitism and euthanasia as he glorified the concept of people sacrificing their own lives for the honor of the Third Reich.  

Goebbels was able to oversee the subtle mixture of entertainment, art and propaganda to indoctrinate Germany and soon all of Europe.  

There was no television during the Nazi administration 1933-1945 so attending your local movie house was your only option for seeing films. 

Before you could enjoy the Nazi entertainment film at your local theaters they’d show a newsreel (Fake News) film.  There were potentially serious consequences for those movie goers that came to movie houses purposly late avoiding the newsreels. That was seen as a form of resistance by the Nazis.  

This mixture of entertainment, art and indoctrination was not lost on our own Hollywood.  They later used films to legitimize homosexuality, gender confusion along with various societal and politically unAmerican aberrations.  

As we enter the age of YouTube and citizen journalism the mixture of entertainment and diverse propaganda is now in its own Renaissance Period.  Today nearly anyone can create video Media to promote whatever they please.  

Free speech is all about diversity of opinion.   The efforts to control and censor video content has become a hot button in our new media society.  It’s all fun until others want to silence your voice or content.  

As for this Documentary film, Hitler’s Hollywood, the grand and nefarious scheme of creating and shaping popular public opinion is laid out for all to see.  Below is the trailer. 

There are over 3500 stories on this blog
go to the main page at www.crimefilenews.com
Hitler’s Hollywood, is a a documentary film about how Joseph Goebbels reinvented Hollywood film making for the Third Reich.

After completely cleansing Jews out of filmmaking, Goebbels used the relatively new media of talkie films to legitimize anti-Semitism and euthanasia as he glorified the concept of people sacrificing their own lives for the honor of the Third Reich.  

Goebbels was able to oversee the subtle mixture of entertainment, art and propaganda to indoctrinate Germany and soon all of Europe.  

There was no television during the Nazi administration 1933-1945 so attending your local movie house was your only option for seeing films. 

Before you could enjoy the Nazi entertainment film at your local theaters they’d show a newsreel (Fake News) film.  There were potentially serious consequences for those movie goers that came to movie houses purposly late avoiding the newsreels. That was seen as a form of resistance by the Nazis.  

This mixture of entertainment, art and indoctrination was not lost on our own Hollywood.  They later used films to legitimize homosexuality, gender confusion along with various societal and politically unAmerican aberrations.  

As we enter the age of YouTube and citizen journalism the mixture of entertainment and diverse propaganda is now in its own Renaissance Period.  Today nearly anyone can create video Media to promote whatever they please.  

Free speech is all about diversity of opinion.   The efforts to control and censor video content has become a hot button in our new media society.  It’s all fun until others want to silence your voice or content.  

As for this Documentary film, Hitler’s Hollywood, the grand and nefarious scheme of creating and shaping popular public opinion is laid out for all to see.  Below is the trailer. 


from http://www.crimefilenews.com/

Research into the Root Causes of Terrorism

Interesting article in Science discussing field research on how people are radicalized to become terrorists. The potential for research that can overcome existing constraints can be seen in recent advances in understanding violent extremism and, partly, in interdiction and prevention. Most notable is waning interest in simplistic root-cause explanations of why individuals become violent extremists (e.g., poverty, lack of education,…

Interesting article in Science discussing field research on how people are radicalized to become terrorists.

The potential for research that can overcome existing constraints can be seen in recent advances in understanding violent extremism and, partly, in interdiction and prevention. Most notable is waning interest in simplistic root-cause explanations of why individuals become violent extremists (e.g., poverty, lack of education, marginalization, foreign occupation, and religious fervor), which cannot accommodate the richness and diversity of situations that breed terrorism or support meaningful interventions. A more tractable line of inquiry is how people actually become involved in terror networks (e.g., how they radicalize and are recruited, move to action, or come to abandon cause and comrades).

Reports from the The Soufan Group, International Center for the Study of Radicalisation (King's College London), and the Combating Terrorism Center (U.S. Military Academy) indicate that approximately three-fourths of those who join the Islamic State or al-Qaeda do so in groups. These groups often involve preexisting social networks and typically cluster in particular towns and neighborhoods.. This suggests that much recruitment does not need direct personal appeals by organization agents or individual exposure to social media (which would entail a more dispersed recruitment pattern). Fieldwork is needed to identify the specific conditions under which these processes play out. Natural growth models of terrorist networks then might be based on an epidemiology of radical ideas in host social networks rather than built in the abstract then fitted to data and would allow for a public health, rather than strictly criminal, approach to violent extremism.

Such considerations have implications for countering terrorist recruitment. The present USG focus is on "counternarratives," intended as alternative to the "ideologies" held to motivate terrorists. This strategy treats ideas as disembodied from the human conditions in which they are embedded and given life as animators of social groups. In their stead, research and policy might better focus on personalized "counterengagement," addressing and harnessing the fellowship, passion, and purpose of people within specific social contexts, as ISIS and al-Qaeda often do. This focus stands in sharp contrast to reliance on negative mass messaging and sting operations to dissuade young people in doubt through entrapment and punishment (the most common practice used in U.S. law enforcement) rather than through positive persuasion and channeling into productive life paths. At the very least, we need field research in communities that is capable of capturing evidence to reveal which strategies are working, failing, or backfiring.

from https://www.schneier.com/blog/

The Future of Faking Audio and Video

This Verge article isn’t great, but we are certainly moving into a future where audio and video will be easy to fake, and easier to fake undetectably. This is going to make propaganda easier, with all of the ill effects we’ve already seen turned up to eleven. I don’t have a good solution for this….

This Verge article isn’t great, but we are certainly moving into a future where audio and video will be easy to fake, and easier to fake undetectably. This is going to make propaganda easier, with all of the ill effects we’ve already seen turned up to eleven.

I don’t have a good solution for this.

Is There Really a Sudden Fake News Epidemic or has Democracy Finally Come to Journalism?

Los Angeles, CA—The father of broadcast Fake News is Josef Goebbels.  As Adolf Hitler’s Minister of Enlightenment  and Propaganda, he was a pure genius.  Goebbels convinced the entire nation of Germany that what they heard on their newly acquired radios was always absolutely true. 
Goebbels success was not lost on our own CIA, back then called, OSS.  The OSS learned of the amazing power of the radio and soon Franklin Roosevelt was broadcasting propaganda “Fireside Chats” that mesmerized our entire nation binding us together against Germany, Italy and Japan. 
In the last 150 years we had powerful newspapers and soon followed radio and television.  I don’t give a rat’s ass who the news provider may be, they all have their own secret and vested interests that they are selling to the public as news.  
Only the very richest Americans could own newspapers and broadcasting organizations.  We the people were never part of the powerful media.  
Reporters and producers are hired based on the ability to craft news stories but also subject to their employer’s political proclivities.  There were once some Conservative newspapers but they all sold out to the wealthy political Left. 
There are no serious mainstream Conservative news organizations around anymore. Conservatives need not apply for media jobs today unless they can hide their political leanings really well.  
The six corporations that own and operate what we call today, The “Mainstream Media” are Leftist and in editorial lockstep together as one. What they’ve expertly been putting out as news is carefully crafted propaganda.  
Since all the news organizations are in agreement on various issues the public is convinced our media giants must be telling the truth. 
The Mainstream Media honchos all understandably thrive on deals and corruption to make their personal wealth and power grow.  They could care less about their audience/readers or their real needs.  They have very human failings at every level.
It’s been said may times that, “He who controls the information can rule the world.”  Recently that control has now somewhat shifted to, we the people!
Suddenly we have the Internet that can transmit text, pictures and high quality video along with affordable equipment that allows anyone to offer up what they call news!  
Slowly citizen journalists, bloggers and podcasters have cropped up by the thousands! Accordingly the newspapers and news broadcasters began to fail big-time!  Pink slips have rained in everyone of the nation’s Mainstream Media newsrooms. 
Some of the Internet news providers are not so clever or capable of crafting propaganda into their offerings subtilely.  Some are reckless and some are absolute abominations. However, now matter how well you can tell a lie or mislead an audience it’s no less deceitful or evil.  
Lack of experience and education has hampered many Internet journalists who have made somewhat clumsy attempts to sway public opinion.  That too will change as they gain necessary skills. 
Adding to the news mess is Twitter, Facebook and a growing list of places where any troll can put up a somewhat convincing “news” item. The problem is people want to believe some of the crap that is maliciously published and don’t bother to check anything out. 
If that’s not enough confusion there are fact checking websites that have their own political agenda and facts are turned into fiction and vise versa.  The only real way to check facts are to actually interview the newsmakers and require they provide reasonable evidence backing their statements. 
Are we somehow in a worse position now than before the Internet News sources?  No, we are better off because there are trusted bloggers and sincere journalists uncovering lies by government and politicians. Wikileaks, Edward Snowden and Bradley “Chelsea” Manning have been able to expose government tyranny and some really outrageous political intrigue.  
Whistle blowers now have real options that never existed before. Yes, despite the longstanding existence of fake news we are slowly becoming more sophisticated and better informed.  
I think we’ve seen the last Presidential election where the dying Mainstream Media will be able to maintain any relevance whatsoever.  They shamelessly fawned all over Hillary Clinton and padded the pre-election polls in her favor.  That came for them with a severe price.  
Let me end this with a simple truth, every writer has an agenda and the First Amendment thankfully protects that short of Libelous publishing or broadcasting.  Only the government gets to lie without punishment but at least now we can expose the crap they dish out.  Democracy has finally come to journalism!  
There are lots of qualified people that can gather and report news.  There are more people than ever that can podcast or post video news packages on the Internet.  There is no better time than now to make an Internet news channel of your own.  

Frankly I won’t cry for the losses of our longstanding Mainstream Media fat-cats. They’ve abused their power long enough.  
There are over 3500 stories on this blog
go to the main page at www.crimefilenews.com

Los Angeles, CA—The father of broadcast Fake News is Josef Goebbels.  As Adolf Hitler’s Minister of Enlightenment  and Propaganda, he was a pure genius.  Goebbels convinced the entire nation of Germany that what they heard on their newly acquired radios was always absolutely true. 
Goebbels success was not lost on our own CIA, back then called, OSS.  The OSS learned of the amazing power of the radio and soon Franklin Roosevelt was broadcasting propaganda “Fireside Chats” that mesmerized our entire nation binding us together against Germany, Italy and Japan. 

In the last 150 years we had powerful newspapers and soon followed radio and television.  I don’t give a rat’s ass who the news provider may be, they all have their own secret and vested interests that they are selling to the public as news.  

Only the very richest Americans could own newspapers and broadcasting organizations.  We the people were never part of the powerful media.  

Reporters and producers are hired based on the ability to craft news stories but also subject to their employer’s political proclivities.  There were once some Conservative newspapers but they all sold out to the wealthy political Left. 

There are no serious mainstream Conservative news organizations around anymore. Conservatives need not apply for media jobs today unless they can hide their political leanings really well.  

The six corporations that own and operate what we call today, The “Mainstream Media” are Leftist and in editorial lockstep together as one. What they’ve expertly been putting out as news is carefully crafted propaganda.  

Since all the news organizations are in agreement on various issues the public is convinced our media giants must be telling the truth. 

The Mainstream Media honchos all understandably thrive on deals and corruption to make their personal wealth and power grow.  They could care less about their audience/readers or their real needs.  They have very human failings at every level.

It’s been said may times that, “He who controls the information can rule the world.”  Recently that control has now somewhat shifted to, we the people!

Suddenly we have the Internet that can transmit text, pictures and high quality video along with affordable equipment that allows anyone to offer up what they call news!  

Slowly citizen journalists, bloggers and podcasters have cropped up by the thousands! Accordingly the newspapers and news broadcasters began to fail big-time!  Pink slips have rained in everyone of the nation’s Mainstream Media newsrooms. 

Some of the Internet news providers are not so clever or capable of crafting propaganda into their offerings subtilely.  Some are reckless and some are absolute abominations. However, now matter how well you can tell a lie or mislead an audience it’s no less deceitful or evil.  

Lack of experience and education has hampered many Internet journalists who have made somewhat clumsy attempts to sway public opinion.  That too will change as they gain necessary skills. 

Adding to the news mess is Twitter, Facebook and a growing list of places where any troll can put up a somewhat convincing “news” item. The problem is people want to believe some of the crap that is maliciously published and don’t bother to check anything out. 

If that’s not enough confusion there are fact checking websites that have their own political agenda and facts are turned into fiction and vise versa.  The only real way to check facts are to actually interview the newsmakers and require they provide reasonable evidence backing their statements. 

Are we somehow in a worse position now than before the Internet News sources?  No, we are better off because there are trusted bloggers and sincere journalists uncovering lies by government and politicians. Wikileaks, Edward Snowden and Bradley “Chelsea” Manning have been able to expose government tyranny and some really outrageous political intrigue.  

Whistle blowers now have real options that never existed before. Yes, despite the longstanding existence of fake news we are slowly becoming more sophisticated and better informed.  

I think we've seen the last Presidential election where the dying Mainstream Media will be able to maintain any relevance whatsoever.  They shamelessly fawned all over Hillary Clinton and padded the pre-election polls in her favor.  That came for them with a severe price.  

Let me end this with a simple truth, every writer has an agenda and the First Amendment thankfully protects that short of Libelous publishing or broadcasting.  Only the government gets to lie without punishment but at least now we can expose the crap they dish out.  Democracy has finally come to journalism!  

There are lots of qualified people that can gather and report news.  There are more people than ever that can podcast or post video news packages on the Internet.  There is no better time than now to make an Internet news channel of your own.  


Frankly I won’t cry for the losses of our longstanding Mainstream Media fat-cats. They’ve abused their power long enough.  

from http://www.crimefilenews.com/

Cybersecurity Issues for the Next Administration

On today’s Internet, too much power is concentrated in too few hands. In the early days of the Internet, individuals were empowered. Now governments and corporations hold the balance of power. If we are to leave a better Internet for the next generations, governments need to rebalance Internet power more towards the individual. This means several things. First, less surveillance….

On today's Internet, too much power is concentrated in too few hands. In the early days of the Internet, individuals were empowered. Now governments and corporations hold the balance of power. If we are to leave a better Internet for the next generations, governments need to rebalance Internet power more towards the individual. This means several things.

First, less surveillance. Surveillance has become the business model of the Internet, and an aspect that is appealing to governments worldwide. While computers make it easier to collect data, and networks to aggregate it, governments should do more to ensure that any surveillance is exceptional, transparent, regulated and targeted. It's a tall order; governments such as that of the US need to overcome their own mass-surveillance desires, and at the same time implement regulations to fetter the ability of Internet companies to do the same.

Second, less censorship. The early days of the Internet were free of censorship, but no more. Many countries censor their Internet for a variety of political and moral reasons, and many large social networking platforms do the same thing for business reasons. Turkey censors anti-government political speech; many countries censor pornography. Facebook has censored both nudity and videos of police brutality. Governments need to commit to the free flow of information, and to make it harder for others to censor.

Third, less propaganda. One of the side-effects of free speech is erroneous speech. This naturally corrects itself when everybody can speak, but an Internet with centralized power is one that invites propaganda. For example, both China and Russia actively use propagandists to influence public opinion on social media. The more governments can do to counter propaganda in all forms, the better we all are.

And fourth, less use control. Governments need to ensure that our Internet systems are open and not closed, that neither totalitarian governments nor large corporations can limit what we do on them. This includes limits on what apps you can run on your smartphone, or what you can do with the digital files you purchase or are collected by the digital devices you own. Controls inhibit innovation: technical, business, and social.

Solutions require both corporate regulation and international cooperation. They require Internet governance to remain in the hands of the global community of engineers, companies, civil society groups, and Internet users. They require governments to be agile in the face of an ever-evolving Internet. And they'll result in more power and control to the individual and less to powerful institutions. That's how we built an Internet that enshrined the best of our societies, and that's how we'll keep it that way for future generations.

This essay previously appeared on Time.com, in a section about issues for the next president. It was supposed to appear in the print magazine, but was preempted by Donald Trump coverage.

from https://www.schneier.com/blog/